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The Center for Spatial Research was established in 2015 as a hub for urban research that links design, architecture, urbanism, the humanities and data science. It sponsors research and curricular activities built around new technologies of mapping, data visualization, data collection, and data analysis. CSR focuses on data literacy as well as interrogating the world of 'big data,' working to open up new areas of research and inquiry with advanced design tools to help scholars, students as well as our collaborators and audiences, to understand cities worldwide – past present and future.

Our projects generally involve collaborations with researchers and advocates across a variety of disciplines and institutions, working with them to communicate information clearly, critically, responsibly, and provocatively. We are committed to rigorous and reliable work with data; to harnessing the most powerful techniques of design and visualization; and to a critical reflection on the limits and ideologies of both data and its representation. Based in the disciplines of design, architecture and urbanism we make links with and bring spatial expertise to humanities as well as the sciences.
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The Center for Spatial Research was established in 2015 as a hub for urban research that links design, architecture, urbanism, the humanities and data science. It sponsors research and curricular activities built around new technologies of mapping, data visualization, data collection, and data analysis. More

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The Center for Spatial Research (CSR) was established in 2015 through a generous grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. CSR supersedes and builds on the work of the Spatial Information Design Lab (SIDL) founded at the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation in 2004. To view a complete archive of SIDL’s work you can visit our old website here.
 
[{"nid":"155","access":true,"node":{"vid":"155","uid":"39","title":"Conflict Urbanism: Aleppo","log":"","status":"1","comment":"1","promote":"0","sticky":"0","nid":"155","type":"project","language":"und","created":"1457638351","changed":"1578521390","tnid":"0","translate":"0","revision_timestamp":"1578521390","revision_uid":"39","field_description":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo\u003C\/em\u003E is the first in a series of interrelated projects as part of our multi-year year research initiative on \u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism\u003C\/em\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EIn January 2016 we launched the \u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo\u003C\/em\u003E \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/aleppo.c4sr.columbia.edu\/map\/index.html\u0022\u003Einteractive map\u003C\/a\u003E, amidst intense violence in Aleppo more than five years after the start of the civil war in Syria. The map served as a research tool for the \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/courses\/conflict-urbanism-aleppo\u0022\u003Espring 2016 Conflict Urbanism: Aleppo seminar\u003C\/a\u003E and as a new window into the conflict for the world at large. The map combines layers of high-resolution satellite images together with data gathered by human rights organizations and the UN to show the historic city from 2012 to the present. Using the logic of a typical geographic information system (GIS) map, the \u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo\u003C\/em\u003E project overlaps these layers, accruing two kinds of evidence: evidence about the physical destruction of the city and evidence about how urban warfare is tracked and monitored from a distance.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EWe are continuing to release additional \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/aleppo.c4sr.columbia.edu\u0022\u003Ecase studies\u003C\/a\u003E that shed light on the effects of the conflict on the urban fabric of Aleppo. We have combined several experimental methods in order to look at the conflict and the urban context of Aleppo in new ways: by cross referencing YouTube videos we have geocoded with bi-weekly change maps we created using low resolution and free Landsat satellite imagery we have been able to identify intense areas of damage on high resolution satellite images that have gone undocumented by the international human rights community, which uses other methods to look at these same high resolution satellite images.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EThe project has been exhibited at the \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/arewehuman.iksv.org\u0022\u003E2016 Istanbul Design Biennale\u003C\/a\u003E (October 22- November 20, 2016) and has been the subject of several invited lectures and articles including in the \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.harvarddesignmagazine.org\/issues\/42\u0022\u003EHarvard Graduate School of Design Magazine\u003C\/a\u003E, Architecture Design, and at the Unknown Unknowables conference in Copenhagen, and a Curating Data conference at Harvard.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo\u003C\/em\u003E is the first in a series of interrelated projects as part of our multi-year year research initiative on \u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism\u003C\/em\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EIn January 2016 we launched the \u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo\u003C\/em\u003E \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/aleppo.c4sr.columbia.edu\/map\/index.html\u0022\u003Einteractive map\u003C\/a\u003E, amidst intense violence in Aleppo more than five years after the start of the civil war in Syria. The map served as a research tool for the \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/courses\/conflict-urbanism-aleppo\u0022\u003Espring 2016 Conflict Urbanism: Aleppo seminar\u003C\/a\u003E and as a new window into the conflict for the world at large. The map combines layers of high-resolution satellite images together with data gathered by human rights organizations and the UN to show the historic city from 2012 to the present. Using the logic of a typical geographic information system (GIS) map, the \u003Cem\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo\u003C\/em\u003E project overlaps these layers, accruing two kinds of evidence: evidence about the physical destruction of the city and evidence about how urban warfare is tracked and monitored from a distance.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EWe are continuing to release additional \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/aleppo.c4sr.columbia.edu\u0022\u003Ecase studies\u003C\/a\u003E that shed light on the effects of the conflict on the urban fabric of Aleppo. We have combined several experimental methods in order to look at the conflict and the urban context of Aleppo in new ways: by cross referencing YouTube videos we have geocoded with bi-weekly change maps we created using low resolution and free Landsat satellite imagery we have been able to identify intense areas of damage on high resolution satellite images that have gone undocumented by the international human rights community, which uses other methods to look at these same high resolution satellite images.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThe project has been exhibited at the \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/arewehuman.iksv.org\u0022\u003E2016 Istanbul Design Biennale\u003C\/a\u003E (October 22- November 20, 2016) and has been the subject of several invited lectures and articles including in the \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.harvarddesignmagazine.org\/issues\/42\u0022\u003EHarvard Graduate School of Design Magazine\u003C\/a\u003E, Architecture Design, and at the Unknown Unknowables conference in Copenhagen, and a Curating Data conference at Harvard.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_category":{"und":[{"tid":"2"}]},"field_project_tags":[],"field_project_images2":{"und":[{"fid":"722","uid":"39","filename":"07_Aleppo_June2016.png","uri":"public:\/\/07_Aleppo_June2016.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"2778536","status":"1","timestamp":"1477936717","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":[],"alt":"Mapping pixel value change using data from the Landsat Satellite","title":"","width":"5162","height":"3542"},{"fid":"460","uid":"39","filename":"CSR_AleppoInterface.png","uri":"public:\/\/CSR_AleppoInterface_0.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"1074128","status":"1","timestamp":"1457640197","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":[],"alt":"The Conflict Urbanism: Aleppo interface","title":"","width":"1590","height":"941"},{"fid":"453","uid":"39","filename":"CSR_Aleppo_04.jpg","uri":"public:\/\/CSR_Aleppo_04_0.jpg","filemime":"image\/jpeg","filesize":"2783822","status":"1","timestamp":"1457638351","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":[],"alt":"Experimental rubble detection method using machine learning","title":"","width":"1600","height":"1200"},{"fid":"465","uid":"39","filename":"CSR_AleppoAerial.png","uri":"public:\/\/CSR_AleppoAerial.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"7700029","status":"1","timestamp":"1457640197","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":[],"alt":"Aleppo 2014","title":"","width":"2820","height":"1836"},{"fid":"467","uid":"39","filename":"CSR_BeforeAfter.png","uri":"public:\/\/CSR_BeforeAfter_0.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"2472540","status":"1","timestamp":"1457640300","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":[],"alt":"Damage in the Karm aj-Jabal neighborhood identified by Human Rights Watch","title":"","width":"2330","height":"1150"}]},"field_software_tags":[],"field_additional_people":{"und":[{"value":"Laura Kurgan, Madeeha Merchant, Jamon Van Der Hoek, Dare Brawley, Grga Basic, Mike Howard","format":null,"safe_value":"Laura Kurgan, Madeeha Merchant, Jamon Van Der Hoek, Dare Brawley, Grga Basic, Mike Howard"}]},"field_project_files":[],"field_project_contact":{"und":[{"email":"info@c4sr.columbia.edu"}]},"field_project_videos":[],"field_more_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_2":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_more_videos":[],"field_additional_project_text":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo is a call for inquiry and a call to action. It is an open-source, interactive, data-rich map of the city of Aleppo, at the neighborhood scale. Users can navigate the city, with the aid of high resolution satellite imagery from before and during the current civil war. It is also an invitation to students and other collaborators to record and narrate urban damage in Aleppo \u2014 at the cultural, infrastructural, or neighborhood scale \u2014 and to present that research in case studies which will be added to the website over time.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003EConflict Urbanism: Aleppo is a call for inquiry and a call to action. It is an open-source, interactive, data-rich map of the city of Aleppo, at the neighborhood scale. Users can navigate the city, with the aid of high resolution satellite imagery from before and during the current civil war. It is also an invitation to students and other collaborators to record and narrate urban damage in Aleppo \u2014 at the cultural, infrastructural, or neighborhood scale \u2014 and to present that research in case studies which will be added to the website over time.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_date":{"und":[{"value":"2016-01-01 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_lead_image":{"und":[{"fid":"452","uid":"39","filename":"CSR_Aleppo_04.jpg","uri":"public:\/\/CSR_Aleppo_04.jpg","filemime":"image\/jpeg","filesize":"2783822","status":"1","timestamp":"1457638351","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":[],"alt":"","title":"","width":"1600","height":"1200"}]},"field_intro_text":[],"field_publication_links":{"und":[{"url":"http:\/\/aleppo.c4sr.columbia.edu\/","title":"Conflict Urbanism Aleppo Site","attributes":[]}]},"field_black_dots_in_slideshow_na":{"und":[{"value":"0"}]},"field_initiative":{"und":[{"tid":"78"}]},"field_themes":{"und":[{"tid":"85"},{"tid":"94"},{"tid":"84"},{"tid":"111"}]},"field_methods":{"und":[{"tid":"101"},{"tid":"98"},{"tid":"97"}]},"field_one_sentence_description":{"und":[{"value":"An evolving and interdisciplinary study of urban damage in Aleppo, Syria.","format":null,"safe_value":"An evolving and interdisciplinary study of urban damage in Aleppo, Syria."}]},"field_project_team_v2":{"und":[{"value":"22","revision_id":"22"},{"value":"23","revision_id":"23"},{"value":"24","revision_id":"24"},{"value":"25","revision_id":"25"},{"value":"83","revision_id":"83"},{"value":"123","revision_id":"123"},{"value":"124","revision_id":"124"}]},"field_inline_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_related_projects":[],"field_related_publications":[],"field_project_website_link":{"und":[{"url":"http:\/\/aleppo.c4sr.columbia.edu\/","title":null,"attributes":[]}]},"field_dashboard_sort_date":{"und":[{"value":"2016-02-19 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_project_gifs":[],"path":"projects\/conflict-urbanism-aleppo","name":"dare","picture":"0","data":"a:5:{s:16:\u0022ckeditor_default\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:20:\u0022ckeditor_show_toggle\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:14:\u0022ckeditor_width\u0022;s:4:\u0022100%\u0022;s:13:\u0022ckeditor_lang\u0022;s:2:\u0022en\u0022;s:18:\u0022ckeditor_auto_lang\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;}","initiative":"Conflict Urbanism","sort_date":"2016","pub_link":"","pub_pdf":"","email":"","image_large":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/c4sr_large_inline_slideshow_980x500\/public\/CSR_Aleppo_04.jpg?itok=3kc3UZ2P","image_small":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/homepage-400x300\/public\/CSR_Aleppo_04.jpg?itok=d5hwNMGa","image_square":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/square-crop-for-button\/public\/CSR_Aleppo_04.jpg?itok=O4ceYnQG"},"node_path_alias":"projects\/conflict-urbanism-aleppo"},{"nid":"385","access":true,"node":{"vid":"385","uid":"1","title":"Points Unknown: Cartographic Narratives","log":"","status":"1","comment":"1","promote":"0","sticky":"0","nid":"385","type":"project","language":"und","created":"1523484265","changed":"1523484265","tnid":"0","translate":"0","revision_timestamp":"1523484265","revision_uid":"1","field_description":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003ESpatial training paired with journalism can serve as a missing \u201cintegrator\u201d of data and the real world\u2014providing lessons that travel beyond the boroughs of New York. A wide array of available spatial-visualization tools can extend journalistic practice, helping reporters better find, understand, and tell stories. These same tools can expose the invisible spaces, forces, and environments that architecture, urban design, and planning students must engage, navigate, and learn to represent as part of their spatial toolkit.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EPoints Unknown will train journalism and architecture students in GIS and mapping techniques, and will prompt them to ask questions such as: What data are made public? What do they say about life in the city? How are neighborhoods rendered in data and what are the consequences of those representations? What undiscovered stories can be found in visualizing geographies of data?\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cimg alt=\u0022\u0022 class=\u0022image-project-page-image img-responsive project-image-inline\u0022 src=\u0022http:\/\/c4sr.spatialinformationdesignlab.org\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/project-page-image\/public\/3D_annotated_1.jpg?itok=txohGmJU\u0022 \/\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EAnnotated map of Chelsea Neighborhood from course exercises.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cimg alt=\u0022\u0022 class=\u0022image-project-page-image img-responsive project-image-inline\u0022 src=\u0022http:\/\/c4sr.spatialinformationdesignlab.org\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/project-page-image\/public\/multispectral_0.png?itok=dL6A-5fx\u0022 \/\u003EFalse color image of flood prone Houston suburbs.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003ESpatial training paired with journalism can serve as a missing \u201cintegrator\u201d of data and the real world\u2014providing lessons that travel beyond the boroughs of New York. A wide array of available spatial-visualization tools can extend journalistic practice, helping reporters better find, understand, and tell stories. These same tools can expose the invisible spaces, forces, and environments that architecture, urban design, and planning students must engage, navigate, and learn to represent as part of their spatial toolkit.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EPoints Unknown will train journalism and architecture students in GIS and mapping techniques, and will prompt them to ask questions such as: What data are made public? What do they say about life in the city? How are neighborhoods rendered in data and what are the consequences of those representations? What undiscovered stories can be found in visualizing geographies of data?\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cimg alt=\u0022\u0022 class=\u0022image-project-page-image img-responsive project-image-inline\u0022 src=\u0022http:\/\/c4sr.spatialinformationdesignlab.org\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/project-page-image\/public\/3D_annotated_1.jpg?itok=txohGmJU\u0022 \/\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EAnnotated map of Chelsea Neighborhood from course exercises.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cimg alt=\u0022\u0022 class=\u0022image-project-page-image img-responsive project-image-inline\u0022 src=\u0022http:\/\/c4sr.spatialinformationdesignlab.org\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/project-page-image\/public\/multispectral_0.png?itok=dL6A-5fx\u0022 \/\u003EFalse color image of flood prone Houston suburbs.\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_category":{"und":[{"tid":"2"}]},"field_project_tags":[],"field_project_images2":[],"field_software_tags":[],"field_additional_people":[],"field_project_files":[],"field_project_contact":{"und":[{"email":"info@spatialinformationdesignlab.org"}]},"field_project_videos":[],"field_more_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_2":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_more_videos":[],"field_additional_project_text":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003EPoints Unknown is a curriculum, jointly developed with the Columbia School of Journalism, that will train journalism and architecture students in GIS and mapping techniques, and will prompt them to ask questions such as: What data are made public? What do they say about life in the city? How are neighborhoods rendered in data and what are the consequences of those representations? What undiscovered stories can be found in visualizing geographies of data?\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003EPoints Unknown is a curriculum, jointly developed with the Columbia School of Journalism, that will train journalism and architecture students in GIS and mapping techniques, and will prompt them to ask questions such as: What data are made public? What do they say about life in the city? How are neighborhoods rendered in data and what are the consequences of those representations? What undiscovered stories can be found in visualizing geographies of data?\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_date":{"und":[{"value":"2017-01-01 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_lead_image":{"und":[{"fid":"856","uid":"1","filename":"3D_annotated_0.jpg","uri":"public:\/\/3D_annotated_0.jpg","filemime":"image\/jpeg","filesize":"128842","status":"1","timestamp":"1523484265","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":500,"width":980},"height":"500","width":"980","alt":"","title":""}]},"field_intro_text":[],"field_publication_links":[],"field_black_dots_in_slideshow_na":{"und":[{"value":"0"}]},"field_initiative":{"und":[{"tid":"112"}]},"field_themes":{"und":[{"tid":"96"},{"tid":"93"},{"tid":"88"}]},"field_methods":{"und":[{"tid":"103"}]},"field_one_sentence_description":{"und":[{"value":"Points Unknown is a curriculum that will train journalism and architecture students in GIS and mapping techniques.","format":null,"safe_value":"Points Unknown is a curriculum that will train journalism and architecture students in GIS and mapping techniques."}]},"field_project_team_v2":{"und":[{"value":"144","revision_id":"144"},{"value":"145","revision_id":"145"},{"value":"146","revision_id":"146"}]},"field_inline_images":{"und":[{"fid":"857","uid":"1","filename":"3D_annotated_0.jpg","uri":"public:\/\/3D_annotated_0_0.jpg","filemime":"image\/jpeg","filesize":"128842","status":"1","timestamp":"1523484265","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":500,"width":980},"height":"500","width":"980","alt":"","title":""},{"fid":"858","uid":"1","filename":"multispectral_0.png","uri":"public:\/\/multispectral_0.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"1368775","status":"1","timestamp":"1523484265","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":500,"width":980},"height":"500","width":"980","alt":"","title":""}]},"field_make_slideshow_":{"und":[{"value":"0"}]},"field_related_projects":[],"field_related_publications":[],"field_project_website_link":{"und":[{"url":"http:\/\/pointsunknown.nyc","title":null,"attributes":[]}]},"field_dashboard_sort_date":{"und":[{"value":"2017-09-09 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_project_gifs":[],"path":"projects\/points-unknown-cartographic-narratives","name":"admin","picture":"0","data":"a:6:{s:16:\u0022ckeditor_default\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:20:\u0022ckeditor_show_toggle\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:14:\u0022ckeditor_width\u0022;s:4:\u0022100%\u0022;s:13:\u0022ckeditor_lang\u0022;s:2:\u0022en\u0022;s:18:\u0022ckeditor_auto_lang\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:7:\u0022overlay\u0022;i:1;}","initiative":"Architecture, Urbanism, and the Humanities","sort_date":"2017","pub_link":"","pub_pdf":"","email":"","image_large":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/c4sr_large_inline_slideshow_980x500\/public\/3D_annotated_0.jpg?itok=CuFG9dc_","image_small":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/homepage-400x300\/public\/3D_annotated_0.jpg?itok=ifTyG5mX","image_square":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/square-crop-for-button\/public\/3D_annotated_0.jpg?itok=XVIzPhiY"},"node_path_alias":"projects\/points-unknown-cartographic-narratives"},{"nid":"423","access":true,"node":{"vid":"423","uid":"39","title":"Mapping Historical New York City","log":"","status":"1","comment":"1","promote":"0","sticky":"0","nid":"423","type":"project","language":"und","created":"1544134160","changed":"1545355131","tnid":"0","translate":"0","revision_timestamp":"1545355131","revision_uid":"39","field_description":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003EMapping Historical New York, through web-based, interactive maps, reconstructs the demographic and structural shifts of Manhattan and Brooklyn between 1850 and 1920. During this period, the city grew and diversified through the arrival of large groups of immigrants. Furthermore, the city boundaries expanded in the late 1890s to include a major section of Long Island specifically Brooklyn and Queens.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EThrough a three year collaboration between the Center for Spatial Research and the Department of History, Historical New York City uses historical GIS and spatial history to develop new understanding of the magnitude of the changes that took place across this time.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EThe project team is digitizing maps of Manhattan and Brooklyn and integrating individual-level records from historical US Censuses to build a comprehensive web-based resource for researchers and students interested in New York City\u2019s history. In addition to producing maps and analysis for the city as a whole, the project plans to develop detailed case studies designed to deepen engagement with the digitized historical maps and demographic datasets at the neighborhood level. The resulting maps, tools, and information will be accessible to the public.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EIn addition to the public-facing, interactive webmap, the project aims to train faculty and students in digital research and teaching methods. Courses on historical New York, immigration, urban history, and spatial history, offered in conjunction with project responsibilities, promote faculty and student involvement in the project\u2019s design, development, and production.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EFunding for this project is provided by the Robert D. L. Gardiner Foundation.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003EMapping Historical New York, through web-based, interactive maps, reconstructs the demographic and structural shifts of Manhattan and Brooklyn between 1850 and 1920. During this period, the city grew and diversified through the arrival of large groups of immigrants. Furthermore, the city boundaries expanded in the late 1890s to include a major section of Long Island specifically Brooklyn and Queens.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThrough a three year collaboration between the Center for Spatial Research and the Department of History, Historical New York City uses historical GIS and spatial history to develop new understanding of the magnitude of the changes that took place across this time.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThe project team is digitizing maps of Manhattan and Brooklyn and integrating individual-level records from historical US Censuses to build a comprehensive web-based resource for researchers and students interested in New York City\u2019s history. In addition to producing maps and analysis for the city as a whole, the project plans to develop detailed case studies designed to deepen engagement with the digitized historical maps and demographic datasets at the neighborhood level. The resulting maps, tools, and information will be accessible to the public.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EIn addition to the public-facing, interactive webmap, the project aims to train faculty and students in digital research and teaching methods. Courses on historical New York, immigration, urban history, and spatial history, offered in conjunction with project responsibilities, promote faculty and student involvement in the project\u2019s design, development, and production.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EFunding for this project is provided by the Robert D. L. Gardiner Foundation.\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_category":{"und":[{"tid":"2"}]},"field_project_tags":[],"field_project_images2":{"und":[{"fid":"908","uid":"39","filename":"hnyc_perris2.jpg","uri":"public:\/\/hnyc_perris2.jpg","filemime":"image\/jpeg","filesize":"137074","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134160","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":600,"width":900},"height":"600","width":"900","alt":"A few blocks on the Lower East Side as documented in William Perris\u2019 1852 Maps of the City of New York. (Source: New York Public Library)","title":""},{"fid":"909","uid":"39","filename":"hnyc_1880census2.jpg","uri":"public:\/\/hnyc_1880census2.jpg","filemime":"image\/jpeg","filesize":"202537","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134160","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":600,"width":900},"height":"600","width":"900","alt":"The project will visualize individual records from the 1880 US Census. (Source: Ancestry.com)","title":""}]},"field_software_tags":[],"field_additional_people":[],"field_project_files":[],"field_project_contact":{"und":[{"email":"info@c4sr.columbia.edu"}]},"field_project_videos":[],"field_more_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_2":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_more_videos":[],"field_additional_project_text":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003EMapping Historical New York will create web-based, interactive maps of Manhattan and Brooklyn as well as detailed neighborhood case studies to show demographic and structural shifts in the city from 1850 to 1920.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003EMapping Historical New York will create web-based, interactive maps of Manhattan and Brooklyn as well as detailed neighborhood case studies to show demographic and structural shifts in the city from 1850 to 1920.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_date":{"und":[{"value":"2018-01-01 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_lead_image":{"und":[{"fid":"907","uid":"39","filename":"hnyc_perris1.jpg","uri":"public:\/\/hnyc_perris1.jpg","filemime":"image\/jpeg","filesize":"139044","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134160","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":500,"width":980},"height":"500","width":"980","alt":"","title":""}]},"field_intro_text":[],"field_publication_links":[],"field_black_dots_in_slideshow_na":{"und":[{"value":"0"}]},"field_initiative":{"und":[{"tid":"112"}]},"field_themes":{"und":[{"tid":"95"},{"tid":"111"},{"tid":"93"},{"tid":"88"}]},"field_methods":{"und":[{"tid":"105"},{"tid":"103"},{"tid":"101"}]},"field_one_sentence_description":{"und":[{"value":"A collaboration to map immigration and neighborhood change in New York City during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.","format":null,"safe_value":"A collaboration to map immigration and neighborhood change in New York City during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries."}]},"field_project_team_v2":{"und":[{"value":"164","revision_id":"164"},{"value":"176","revision_id":"176"},{"value":"177","revision_id":"177"},{"value":"165","revision_id":"165"},{"value":"166","revision_id":"166"},{"value":"167","revision_id":"167"}]},"field_inline_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_related_projects":[],"field_related_publications":[],"field_project_website_link":[],"field_dashboard_sort_date":{"und":[{"value":"2018-09-12 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_project_gifs":[],"path":"projects\/mapping-historical-new-york-city","name":"dare","picture":"0","data":"a:5:{s:16:\u0022ckeditor_default\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:20:\u0022ckeditor_show_toggle\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:14:\u0022ckeditor_width\u0022;s:4:\u0022100%\u0022;s:13:\u0022ckeditor_lang\u0022;s:2:\u0022en\u0022;s:18:\u0022ckeditor_auto_lang\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;}","initiative":"Architecture, Urbanism, and the Humanities","sort_date":"2018","pub_link":"","pub_pdf":"","email":"","image_large":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/c4sr_large_inline_slideshow_980x500\/public\/hnyc_perris1.jpg?itok=A5f3qUfG","image_small":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/homepage-400x300\/public\/hnyc_perris1.jpg?itok=EtNVach2","image_square":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/square-crop-for-button\/public\/hnyc_perris1.jpg?itok=31crUoYN"},"node_path_alias":"projects\/mapping-historical-new-york-city"},{"nid":"388","access":true,"node":{"vid":"388","uid":"1","title":"We Can","log":"","status":"1","comment":"1","promote":"0","sticky":"0","nid":"388","type":"project","language":"und","created":"1523484569","changed":"1583444345","tnid":"0","translate":"0","revision_timestamp":"1583444345","revision_uid":"39","field_description":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003EWho are the canners? 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We are now working together to build a multimedia interactive digital platform that challenges the preconceived notion of canners as desperate, homeless, junkies while inviting the users to explore NYC through their eyes.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EThrough audio vignettes, drawings, mapping and data visualizations, we are telling the stories of a Mexican couple who make more than $50,000 a year collecting garbage, of a young queer who picks up cans and bottles to help his grandma and performs on Broadways shows, of a man who lost his apartment in the 2008 mortgage crisis and that says that canning saved him from depression.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EThe funding for this project has been provided through a Magic Grant from the\u0026nbsp;\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/brown.columbia.edu\/\u0022\u003EHelen Gurley Brown Institute for Media Innovation.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003EWho are the canners? How do they experience the city? How much can they make, 5 cents at a time?\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EOver the past eight months, journalist Francesca Berardi followed a group of canners in their daily activity, collecting qualitative and quantitative information about their work. They come in the form of handwritten notes, sketches, audio interviews, photos and videos taken with an iPhone, which was the only technological tool used on the field. We are now working together to build a multimedia interactive digital platform that challenges the preconceived notion of canners as desperate, homeless, junkies while inviting the users to explore NYC through their eyes.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThrough audio vignettes, drawings, mapping and data visualizations, we are telling the stories of a Mexican couple who make more than $50,000 a year collecting garbage, of a young queer who picks up cans and bottles to help his grandma and performs on Broadways shows, of a man who lost his apartment in the 2008 mortgage crisis and that says that canning saved him from depression.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThe funding for this project has been provided through a Magic Grant from the\u00a0\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/brown.columbia.edu\/\u0022\u003EHelen Gurley Brown Institute for Media Innovation.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_category":{"und":[{"tid":"3"}]},"field_project_tags":[],"field_project_images2":{"und":[{"fid":"863","uid":"1","filename":"01_Homepage_900x600.png","uri":"public:\/\/01_Homepage_900x600_0.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"147554","status":"1","timestamp":"1523484569","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":600,"width":900},"height":"600","width":"900","alt":"","title":""},{"fid":"864","uid":"1","filename":"02_Morena_980x500.png","uri":"public:\/\/02_Morena_980x500.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"175553","status":"1","timestamp":"1523484569","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":500,"width":980},"height":"500","width":"980","alt":"","title":""},{"fid":"865","uid":"1","filename":"03_Path_980x500.png","uri":"public:\/\/03_Path_980x500.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"165751","status":"1","timestamp":"1523484569","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":500,"width":980},"height":"500","width":"980","alt":"","title":""},{"fid":"866","uid":"1","filename":"04_Morena_dataViz_980x500.png","uri":"public:\/\/04_Morena_dataViz_980x500.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"416458","status":"1","timestamp":"1523484569","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":500,"width":980},"height":"500","width":"980","alt":"","title":""}]},"field_software_tags":[],"field_additional_people":[],"field_project_files":[],"field_project_contact":{"und":[{"email":"info@spatialinformationdesignlab.org"}]},"field_project_videos":[],"field_more_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_2":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_more_videos":[],"field_additional_project_text":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003EWe Can is a multimedia storytelling project that explores the lives and activity of canners, people who pick up cans and bottles on NYC streets. 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Despite the increasing nuance and sophistication of classification and categorization systems, the formalization of categories is always going to be playing catch up to how we can define ourselves. Is it possible that we can challenge the transactional nature of our current relationship with data by viewing aggregate data through the lens of self knowledge?\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003EThis project visualizes the U.S. Census through the lens of 1 person\u2019s location data over the course of 3 years. It addresses the potential of self quantification in the personalization of public aggregate data. The dataset included 899 days of usable data, containing just over 21,000 records of time and location, most of which were in the United States. The over 20,000 American locations recorded are not all unique, they fell into 2633 unique census tracts. Of these tracts, over half of the recorded time was spent in just 9 census tracts. 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The installation is conceived and designed for\u0026nbsp;\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/dimensionsofcitizenship.org\/\u0022\u003EDimensions of Citizenship\u003C\/a\u003E, the US Pavilion at the 16th International Architecture Exhibition of La Biennale di Venezia, commissioned by the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and The University of Chicago.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EView the full project video\u0026nbsp;\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/vimeo.com\/290575503\u0022\u003Ehere\u003C\/a\u003E.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EIn Plain Sight\u003C\/em\u003E\u00a0presents anomalies in population distribution seen in\u00a0nighttime\u00a0satellite\u00a0imagery of Earth and census grid\u00a0counts produced by governments worldwide\u00a0\u2014 revealing\u00a0places with bright lights\u00a0and no people and places with people and no\u00a0lights\u2014thus, challenging our assumptions about geographies of belonging and exclusion.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThe project was tasked with interrogating the relationship between citizenship and the built environment at the scale of the globe, where the primacy of the individual, the city, and even the nation drops away and is replaced by data: electricity, trade routes, migratory shifts, and the flow of capital, goods and people.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThe installation is a collaboration between Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Laura Kurgan, and Robert Gerard Pietrusko with the Center for Spatial Research,\u00a0and will be on view from May 26 through November 25, 2018. The installation is conceived and designed for\u00a0\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/dimensionsofcitizenship.org\/\u0022\u003EDimensions of Citizenship\u003C\/a\u003E, the US Pavilion at the 16th International Architecture Exhibition of La Biennale di Venezia, commissioned by the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and The University of Chicago.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EView the full project video\u00a0\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/vimeo.com\/290575503\u0022\u003Ehere\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_category":{"und":[{"tid":"1"}]},"field_project_tags":[],"field_project_images2":{"und":[{"fid":"911","uid":"39","filename":"BlackMarble_Wide.png","uri":"public:\/\/BlackMarble_Wide.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"2295625","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134554","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":1679,"width":3360},"height":"1679","width":"3360","alt":"The Earth at night, as seen in the \u0022Black Marble.\u0022","title":""},{"fid":"912","uid":"39","filename":"8Dark_wide.png","uri":"public:\/\/8Dark_wide.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"2864070","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134554","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":1676,"width":3360},"height":"1676","width":"3360","alt":"The absence of light does not always mean the absence of people.","title":""},{"fid":"914","uid":"39","filename":"128Dark_night.png","uri":"public:\/\/128Dark_night.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"1484771","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134554","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":1684,"width":3360},"height":"1684","width":"3360","alt":"Night View: Dark yet populated places are dispersed across the globe.","title":""},{"fid":"915","uid":"39","filename":"128Dark.png","uri":"public:\/\/128Dark.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"10839340","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134554","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":1682,"width":3360},"height":"1682","width":"3360","alt":"Day View: Dark yet populated places are dispersed across the globe.","title":""},{"fid":"916","uid":"39","filename":"8Bright.png","uri":"public:\/\/8Bright.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"2844759","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134554","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":1675,"width":3360},"height":"1675","width":"3360","alt":"The presence of light does not always mean the presence of people.","title":""},{"fid":"917","uid":"39","filename":"8BrightGrid.png","uri":"public:\/\/8BrightGrid.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"6417262","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134554","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":1680,"width":3360},"height":"1680","width":"3360","alt":"There are many kinds of bright locations with very few inhabitants.","title":""}]},"field_software_tags":[],"field_additional_people":[],"field_project_files":[],"field_project_contact":{"und":[{"email":"info@c4sr.columbia.edu"}]},"field_project_videos":{"und":[{"url":"https:\/\/vimeo.com\/290575503","title":null,"attributes":[]}]},"field_more_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_2":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_more_videos":[],"field_additional_project_text":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EIn Plain Sight\u003C\/em\u003E\u0026nbsp;presents anomalies in population distribution seen in\u0026nbsp;nighttime\u0026nbsp;satellite\u0026nbsp;imagery of Earth and census grid\u0026nbsp;counts produced by governments worldwide\u0026nbsp;\u2014 revealing\u0026nbsp;places with bright lights\u0026nbsp;and no people and places with people and no\u0026nbsp;lights\u2014thus, challenging our assumptions about geographies of belonging and exclusion.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EIn Plain Sight\u003C\/em\u003E\u00a0presents anomalies in population distribution seen in\u00a0nighttime\u00a0satellite\u00a0imagery of Earth and census grid\u00a0counts produced by governments worldwide\u00a0\u2014 revealing\u00a0places with bright lights\u00a0and no people and places with people and no\u00a0lights\u2014thus, challenging our assumptions about geographies of belonging and exclusion.\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}]},"field_project_date":{"und":[{"value":"2018-01-01 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_lead_image":{"und":[{"fid":"910","uid":"39","filename":"BlackMarbleLight_Alt.png","uri":"public:\/\/BlackMarbleLight_Alt.png","filemime":"image\/png","filesize":"2626644","status":"1","timestamp":"1544134554","type":"image","field_image_caption":[],"field_file_image_alt_text":[],"field_file_image_title_text":[],"metadata":{"height":1699,"width":2556},"height":"1699","width":"2556","alt":"","title":""}]},"field_intro_text":[],"field_publication_links":[],"field_black_dots_in_slideshow_na":{"und":[{"value":"0"}]},"field_initiative":{"und":[{"tid":"78"}]},"field_themes":{"und":[{"tid":"84"},{"tid":"90"},{"tid":"95"}]},"field_methods":{"und":[{"tid":"110"},{"tid":"103"},{"tid":"97"}]},"field_one_sentence_description":{"und":[{"value":"An immersive installation in the US Pavilion at the 16th International Architecture Exhibition of La Biennale di Venezia.","format":null,"safe_value":"An immersive installation in the US Pavilion at the 16th International Architecture Exhibition of La Biennale di Venezia."}]},"field_project_team_v2":{"und":[{"value":"168","revision_id":"168"},{"value":"169","revision_id":"169"},{"value":"170","revision_id":"170"},{"value":"171","revision_id":"171"},{"value":"172","revision_id":"172"}]},"field_inline_images":[],"field_make_slideshow_":{"und":[{"value":"1"}]},"field_related_projects":[],"field_related_publications":[],"field_project_website_link":{"und":[{"url":"https:\/\/vimeo.com\/290575503","title":null,"attributes":[]}]},"field_dashboard_sort_date":{"und":[{"value":"2018-05-26 00:00:00","timezone":"America\/New_York","timezone_db":"America\/New_York","date_type":"datetime"}]},"field_project_gifs":[],"path":"projects\/plain-sight","name":"dare","picture":"0","data":"a:5:{s:16:\u0022ckeditor_default\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:20:\u0022ckeditor_show_toggle\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;s:14:\u0022ckeditor_width\u0022;s:4:\u0022100%\u0022;s:13:\u0022ckeditor_lang\u0022;s:2:\u0022en\u0022;s:18:\u0022ckeditor_auto_lang\u0022;s:1:\u0022t\u0022;}","initiative":"Conflict Urbanism","sort_date":"2018","pub_link":"","pub_pdf":"","email":"","image_large":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/c4sr_large_inline_slideshow_980x500\/public\/BlackMarbleLight_Alt.png?itok=SIHYWb4R","image_small":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/homepage-400x300\/public\/BlackMarbleLight_Alt.png?itok=vLFK1d8L","image_square":"https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/square-crop-for-button\/public\/BlackMarbleLight_Alt.png?itok=-eu_zYeV"},"node_path_alias":"projects\/plain-sight"},{"nid":"476","access":true,"node":{"vid":"476","uid":"39","title":"Homophily: the Urban History of an Algorithm","log":"","status":"1","comment":"0","promote":"0","sticky":"0","nid":"476","type":"project","language":"und","created":"1574879774","changed":"1580749725","tnid":"0","translate":"0","revision_timestamp":"1580749725","revision_uid":"39","field_description":{"und":[{"value":"\u003Cp\u003EThe word \u0022homophily\u0022 was coined by researchers Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert Merton in an influential 1954 study of friendships in Addison Terrace, a biracial housing project in Pittsburgh. They were suspicious of the \u0022familiar and egregiously misleading question: do birds of a feather flock together?\u0022 They suggested that friendships form and persist not simply on the basis of shared identities but thanks to shared values and beliefs. They focused on \u0022racial attitudes,\u0022 and discovered that people with what they called \u0022liberal\u0022 values about race were much more likely to be friends with each other, as were people with \u0022illiberal\u0022 positions. In a quirk of statistical reasoning, they used only the survey results from white residents: the black population was so overwhelmingly \u0022liberal\u0022 that comparison was impossible. The model of homophily \u2013 \u0022the tendency for friendships to form between people \u0027of the same kind\u0027\u0022\u0026nbsp; \u2013 was born in this conflictual urban battleground around segregation and integration.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EThe afterlife of the concept and its formalization has been remarkable. Today it functions as the principle underlying much of what happens in online social and economic interactions, the axiom that \u2018similarity breeds connection.\u0027 What began as a description of social life has become an algorithmic rule shaping it: homophily drives targeted advertising, recommendations for purchases and viewing, the promotion of certain types of content on social media platforms over others, and the predictions about crime that guide pre-emptive policing. More or less invisibly, it guides us to people, commodities, destinations, and ideas, among other things, and is widely blamed for creating a social world in which previously-held identities and positions are reinforced and concentrated rather than challenged or hybridized.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EThe exhibition puts the formalization of homophily in tension with its conceptual and historical origins. The exterior of the five-walled space is covered in custom LED panels that simulate homophily and the segregation that it produces. Inside, a series of probes into the archives of Lazarsfeld and Merton uncover the history of the concept of homophily and its influence on urbanism and network science. Their archive is not simply something from the past. It speaks directly to our present, our segregated cities and our polarized platforms, where the effects of research in a housing project now reverberate at much greater scale in networks and networked cities.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EOn view at the \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/chicagoarchitecturebiennial.org\/\u0022\u003E2019 Chicago Architecture Biennial\u003C\/a\u003E September 18,2019 \u2013 January 5, 2020.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EA companion essay to the exhibition is \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.e-flux.com\/architecture\/are-friends-electric\/289193\/homophily-the-urban-history-of-an-algorithm\/\u0022\u003Epublished\u003C\/a\u003E in e-flux Architecture.\u0026nbsp;\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EResearch for this exhibition was supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Canada 150 Research Chairs Program, and the Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. With thanks Leslie Gill Architect for design consultation, and to the Columbia Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Harriet Zuckerman, Robert Lazarsfeld for assistance and reproduction permissions on archival materials.\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cimg alt=\u0022\u0022 class=\u0022image-project-page-image img-responsive project-image-inline\u0022 src=\u0022https:\/\/c4sr.columbia.edu\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/project-page-image\/public\/CSR_2019_homophily_axo_view_alt-01.png?itok=gRIhLZvY\u0022 style=\u0022height:1250px; width:1875px\u0022 \/\u003EIn collaboration with:\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EWendy Hui Kyong Chun, Canada 150 Research Chair in New Media and Professor of Communication, Simon Fraser University\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EGraduate Research Assistants: Alanna Browdy, Rebecca Cook, Audrey Dandenault, Tola Oniyangi, Andrea Partenio, Juvaria Shahid\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n\r\n\u003Cp\u003EGraphic Design: Studio TheGreenEyl\u003C\/p\u003E\r\n","format":"filtered_html","safe_value":"\u003Cp\u003EThe word \u0022homophily\u0022 was coined by researchers Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert Merton in an influential 1954 study of friendships in Addison Terrace, a biracial housing project in Pittsburgh. They were suspicious of the \u0022familiar and egregiously misleading question: do birds of a feather flock together?\u0022 They suggested that friendships form and persist not simply on the basis of shared identities but thanks to shared values and beliefs. They focused on \u0022racial attitudes,\u0022 and discovered that people with what they called \u0022liberal\u0022 values about race were much more likely to be friends with each other, as were people with \u0022illiberal\u0022 positions. In a quirk of statistical reasoning, they used only the survey results from white residents: the black population was so overwhelmingly \u0022liberal\u0022 that comparison was impossible. The model of homophily \u2013 \u0022the tendency for friendships to form between people \u0027of the same kind\u0027\u0022\u00a0 \u2013 was born in this conflictual urban battleground around segregation and integration.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThe afterlife of the concept and its formalization has been remarkable. Today it functions as the principle underlying much of what happens in online social and economic interactions, the axiom that \u2018similarity breeds connection.\u0027 What began as a description of social life has become an algorithmic rule shaping it: homophily drives targeted advertising, recommendations for purchases and viewing, the promotion of certain types of content on social media platforms over others, and the predictions about crime that guide pre-emptive policing. More or less invisibly, it guides us to people, commodities, destinations, and ideas, among other things, and is widely blamed for creating a social world in which previously-held identities and positions are reinforced and concentrated rather than challenged or hybridized.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EThe exhibition puts the formalization of homophily in tension with its conceptual and historical origins. The exterior of the five-walled space is covered in custom LED panels that simulate homophily and the segregation that it produces. Inside, a series of probes into the archives of Lazarsfeld and Merton uncover the history of the concept of homophily and its influence on urbanism and network science. Their archive is not simply something from the past. It speaks directly to our present, our segregated cities and our polarized platforms, where the effects of research in a housing project now reverberate at much greater scale in networks and networked cities.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EOn view at the \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/chicagoarchitecturebiennial.org\/\u0022\u003E2019 Chicago Architecture Biennial\u003C\/a\u003E September 18,2019 \u2013 January 5, 2020.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EA companion essay to the exhibition is \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.e-flux.com\/architecture\/are-friends-electric\/289193\/homophily-the-urban-history-of-an-algorithm\/\u0022\u003Epublished\u003C\/a\u003E in e-flux Architecture.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EResearch for this exhibition was supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Canada 150 Research Chairs Program, and the Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. 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Fall 2020 Courses
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